Advertising and commercials are massive examples of how we decode and take in meanings for what we are presented in front of us. They are also pieces of history as and advertisement often reflect the cultural norms and withhold historical context behind each one. They reflect social norms and reflects a different time and place.They also reinforce cultural myths as well as values within the period.
Maslow devised a hierarchy of human needs that shows what we need to be for filled and how advertisers use this to there advantage by targeting these needs.
linguistics is defrentiating literal meanings such as denotation and connotation is where you have to think deeper into it and maybe have intertextual references that associate with the thing we look at.
Recap On Semiotics
semiotics is a study of signs within pop culture. It is a critical method of deconstructing visual texts which practically means anything that is a symbol is distinguished as a semiotic code. Synchronic approach is a focus on how we use language to communicate everyday. Each sign has two sides. A language system is made in up of words that are arbitrary and depend on difference. it is always important to remember that signifier + signified = sign. World of Wrestling showed us about. a key audience dynamic, body language is important in telling us a narrative as well as excessive gestures. Presentation shows a live event. Representation - mediation. Re - Representation is the re framing of the natural framework.
Words are arbitrary signifier are things that don't resemble what they signify, require a knowledge of language, linguistics forms and rules. Plane of expression - effects the reading of the meaning. Sometimes and most often than not words spell pout almost directly what is going on. however sometimes words can have hidden meanings and aggenda's.
images are iconic signifiers which means that they resemble what they and are a simple plane of abstraction said by Roland Barthes. This means that images can be captured In a rendered visual. But with times like now this theory can be deemed to be at fault, because of the power of media saturation and photo editing, pictures are altered and it is left up to the audience to perceive what is real and what is the this hyper reality created by the individual at the for front of the image.
This is a visual culture and media it is rare that images and words aren't placed together. Pictures can be depicted or and illusion. Images framed with text like comics can defrenchiate meaning. Words providing all or meaning of the information needed to decode the image we have placed in front of us. If the piece is 'image specific' this means that the image provides everything we need to decode the message. A 'dual message' is a word with an image and is often found in early advertising. interdependent or convergent are words and images working together but contributing separately. Parallel or divergent means that words and images withhold different meanings on the piece. Barthes opinion on anchorage is that we need a signifier and a signified to decode meanings and messages. Different newspapers for example display different consrtuctalist views.
Non - coded is where the immediate reading of the sign is detected. Secondary is where we are left to think of other concepts such as having intertextual references that allow us to decode what it is we are faced with and this is reflects are cultural capital.
Semiotics is a thematic coherence (subject field) and has been created by a bunch of mythologies and theorist ideas on that we can decode people in a matter of different ways. These can include body language and signifiers such as their clothes that can tell us a lot about a persons background wealth or social status all down to even a colour. Semiotics is a study of signs and sign systems within society and we can encode and decode which are often signs that are grouped together.
Clothing is a cultural sign system as well as posing, body language and facial expressions are things were can decode from and define people. Semiotics is a critical methodology and provides us with a useful framework. Advertising is something that picks up and is a clear representation of social constructs as well as historical context; trends being a refection of what is current in that time period which is extremely crucial and relevant part in design and the industry. Ferdinand Saussure a linguist academic as well as Charles Pierce had an ideology or passive and constructive ideologies. a quote from Johnathan Bignall is crucial as he says 'signs and media are expressing signs'.
Communication through language is all about exchange of minds. words are extremely symbolic and signifiers and signified concludes often to a sign. Often signifiers are physical representations that we perceive . Signified constructs are mental concepts. Parole is a partial example of speech writing. syntagm is a sentence that we notice as a sentence of signs for example when witnessing the word 'dog' a syntagm is when we recognise things in association to them 'my dog smells terrible' A paradigm is similar but is as point of substitution such as my dog smells eats and barks.
Mythologies are aspects of culture and applying a frame work to certain behaviours and Roland Barthes is s theorist who' is particularly fasciated by it. Cultural texts carry meanings or cultural norms in the time period. in society we have many 'ideologies'. Ideology is a ruling material force of society is also its ruling intellectual force (who has control of the meaning?). Dominant ideologies can only operate through general consensus. Alain De Botton described ideology as 'released into society like an odourless, colourless gass'